Architecture: Actors and Roles

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Actors and Roles

Actors fulfill roles participating in the business functions of an organization. In this section some of these core roles defined for a hotel. Actors may be human or a system and may initiates an action or participates in a business process. The definition of an actor should include the types of people or systems that may be involved in the role, the core responsibilities of the role, and the location where the actors are generally found when performing their roles. Human roles are played by people. A single person may be the actor in several different roles. For example the person doing the job of the Night Manager may also be working as a Guest Clerk at the same time.

Common Roles

One who consumes the goods and services of the business.
Paying consumer.
A Guest is a consumer who is authorized to stay in a room at the hotel. Guests typically make reservations, check-in, check-out, review their folios and utilize guest services. Reservations can be made by a guest from any location. Check-in, check-out, and guest services functions are normally functions that occur at the property during a stay. Guest is a specialization of the Consumer role.

AV Technology Management

AV Coordinator
Prepare and take down the A/V equipment for event space

Back Office

The Bookkeeper performs the basic accounting functions. The bookkeeper may be located on or off the property.
Operates the Point of Sales system and collects payment from customers
General Manager
The General Manager is responsible for the overall operations of the hotel including; profit and loss and ultimately guest satisfaction. The General Manager hires and fires the management staff. In a small hotel the General Manager may also perform the Bookkeeper, Sales Manager, Marketing Manager, and Revenue Manager roles. The General Manager is located at the property.
Night Manager
The Night Manager performs the night audit. In a small property the Night Manager may also serve as the Guest Clerk and may service simple housekeeping and facilities guest requests. The Night Manager is located at the property.
Revenue Manager
The Revenue Manager is responsible for optimizing Revenue Per Available Room (REVPAR). The revenue Manager role may be fulfilled by the same persons performing the General Manager, Sales Manager, or Marketing Manager role. The Revenue Manager may be located away from the property.
Security Officer
The Security Officer maintains the physical security of the premises. The Security Officer is located at the property.


Banquet Manager
A banquet manager oversees all aspects of a banquet or event, including menu selection and food preparation, serving, and cleanup. (
Banquet Staff
Can fulfill multiple roles such as set-up, take-down, host, waiters, busser, etc.
Serves and mixes alcoholic beverages
Beverage Manager
Responsible for all alcoholic beverages and oversees the bar-tending staff.
Calls incoming orders to the cooks
cleans dishes
Executive Chef
In charge in the kitchen
Food and Beverage Controller
This is a role that is often carried out by a revenue manager. The F&B Controller calculates profit or loss on each item of food or beverages sold in restaurant and individual departments and records data to keep perpetual inventory.
Kitchen Porter
A porter is brought in at the end of the day to assist with cleaning the kitchen
Kitchen Steward
Oversees the dishwashers, kitchen porter, specialty dishwashers, and stock keepers and manages steam tables.
Line Chef/Cook
Any cook working on the line. Includes Grill Cook, Fry Cook and Saute Chef.
Setup Manager
Setup Manager is responsible for all setup tasks for a banquet including tables, chairs, linens, podium and other items.
Specialty Dishwasher
cleans silver and other dishes that require special washing (can't throw it into washer)
Stock Keeper
takes care of inventory of China, plates, bowls, and other dishes*Food Safety

Also see Food Services Diagram


Coatroom Attendant
Person who accepts coats, stores them, and returns them to customers. The Coatroom Attendant works at the hotel.


Person who performs the duties of the Concierge, providing local information to guests. This person if typically located at the hotel.

Event Services

Event Salesperson
Sells the facilities
Event Coordinator
Coordinates activities within the hotel for the event
Event Planner
Works with the host(s)/producer(s) of the event to plan the event
Event Producer or Host
The Event Producer or Host is normally the customer for the event services. They work with the presenters, performers, entertainment, and the venue or hotel to make sure all of the required elements come together. The role may have different names depending on the type of event. For example a wedding planning might be the producer for a wedding reception held at the hotel. A meeting planner might be the producer for company meetings or conferences.
Banqueting Captain
Manages the banqueting staff and services
Banqueting Staff
Prepare and take down the event space

Also see Event Services Diagram


Engineers perform facilities maintenance tasks and fulfill facilities related guest requests. They are normally located on the property.
Engineering Supervisor
The Engineering Supervisor is responsible for planning, managing and inspecting the work of the engineers and for long-term maintenance planning for the property. They are normally located at the property.

Guest Services

Guest Clerk
The Guest Clerk is the role assigned to the people that provide guest services, like check-in and check-out. This is often the front desk person in small properties. The Guest Clerk is located at the property. The core responsibility of the Guest Clerk is to address the needs of the guests. In a small property the guest clerk often also serves as a concierge and bellman.


Housekeepers clean and restock the rooms and other spaces within the hotel and fulfill housekeeping related guest requests.
Housekeeping Supervisor
The Housekeeping Supervisor is responsible for planning, managing and inspecting the work of the housekeepers. They are located at the property


Parking Valet
Parks and retrieves guests vehicles
Parking Lot Attendant
Controls entry and exit to parking facilities and may collect fees associated with parking
Parking Lot Manager
Manages the operations of the parking facility

Porter and Bell Services

Porter, Bellhop, Bellboy, Bellstaff
A person employed to carry luggage and supplies, These are essentially equivalent roles Bellstaff is the common term for all of these roles used in our reference documents
Bell Captain
Assigns tasks and manages Bellstaff
Assists Guests between transportation and door or lobby of hotel, may assist with bags and may hail taxi cabs and provide limited concierge services related to transportation or provide directions to nearby locations.


Reservations Agent
The Reservations Agent facilitates booking the room for the guest. The reservation agent may be located anyplace and may or may not be employed by the property.

Room Service

Room Services manager
Manages scheduling, payroll, and training and filling gaps when busy
Order Taker
Takes room services orders
Room services delivers items to room

Sales and Marketing

Marketing Manager
The Marketing Manager role is responsible for creating, planning, and executing marketing campaigns, advertising, and developing and maintaining the marketing information for the property. In a small hotel this role may be performed by the same people performing the General Manager and Sales Manager roles. The Marketing manager may be located away from the property.
Sales Manager
The Sales Manager is responsible for coordinating group and corporate sales and may also perform the duties of the Marketing Manager. The Sales Manager may be located away from the property.

System Roles

System roles are played by systems. A system may be a software based system running on some computer hardware or it may be a simple index card box, or peg board with keys hanging in it. This section describes the system roles needed to operate a hotel.

Guest Request System
The Guest Request System is a system actor: a system that initiates actions. The Guest Request System accepts requests from guests and sends them to the appropriate system for fulfilling the request. It may initiate actions with both the housekeeping and facilities systems.
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