Architecture: Conceptual Data Architecture

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TBD - SECTION 4.1 and SECTION 5 from ADM 1 data architecture



The document is a representation of the Data Architecture for an hotel that provides sleeping room accommodations and food and beverage services. This document is the result of the application of the Open Group’s Architecture Framework (TOGAF) and its Architecture Development Methodology (ADM). Data Architecture combined with the Application Architecture (found in a separate document) form the Information Architecture described in the ADM step C. When combined with the Business Architecture and Vision these documents form a reference architecture for the hotel industry.

Data Principles

Data Principles are rules and guidelines govern the development, maintenance, and implementation of the data architecture. The following principles were used in the development of this reference architecture:

Data is an Asset
Data is an asset that has value to the business and is managed accordingly.
Data is Shared and Accessible
Users have access to the data necessary to perform their duties; therefore, data is shared across functions and organizations.
Data is Secured Appropriately
Data is protected from unauthorized use and disclosure and access to data is limited to those who need access to perform their duties.
Data Trustees and Stewards
Each data element has a trustee accountable for data quality and a steward accountable for data integrity.
Common Vocabulary and Data Definitions
Data is defined consistently throughout the organization, and the definitions are understandable and available to all users.

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Common Vocabulary and Data Definitions

This section provides a list of terms and the definitions that the Architecture Workgroup has agreed on for the terms. This is not a complete reference of terms for the Hotel Industry; rather it is a list of the terms that were encountered as the Reference Architecture was being created. The Hotel Industry Terminology Team within the HTNG Architecture Workgroup is working on a complete reference for Hotel Industry terminology.

An Advertisement is a specific type of promotional material that is a placement (possibly paid) of a specific piece of marketing collateral.
A Building represents a physical structure on the hotel Property.
A Charge is a financial obligation for a Product or Service during a guest stay. Examples of Charges are:
  • Room Stay
  • Function Room Rental
  • Merchandise Purchase
  • Food Purchase
Device Asset
A Device Asset is an electronic item owned or leased by the hotel. Some of these items are traceable or accountable and some are not.
Issues and Questions
Seems like this should be tied to a Room-Type, but there are probably many variances in the real world (like not every suite has DVD player
Device Assets can be all over the property so it shouldn’t be limited to a Room-Type
Same questions as Device-Type about just how much of an asset management system we have in the architecture
An employee is a person who works for the hotel and is paid some form of salary or wage.
A Folio is a collection of Charges and Payments incurred or made by a Guest or corporate account, or in-house account, etc
Full-Time Employee
A Full-Time employee is someone that is employed by the hotel company on a full-time basis and paid a salary or hourly wage, and eligible for benefits
A Guest is a person that is currently registered to stay at a property and/or has stayed at a property.
Housekeeping Asset
A housekeeping asset is a consumable item used to maintain a Room-Type such as toilet paper, cleaners, soaps, shampoo, etc. All items are not accounted for.
Housekeeping Request
A Housekeeping Request is a request for housekeeping.
Independent Contractor
An independent contractor is someone that is not employed by the hotel but is rendering services to/for the hotel and is compensated for services. Since these resources are not considered employees, typical personnel functions and responsibilities do not rest within the responsibilities of the hotel.
An Invoice is a request for payment made by the hotel to a company with which is does business.
Linen Asset
A linen asset is an item used to maintain a Room-Type that is re-used after laundering such as sheets, blankets, towels, etc. These items quantities are tracked, but not the individual assets.
A loyalty program is a marketing program that offers rewards to guests for regular or frequent business. A loyalty program may also be a partnership with loyalty programs of other businesses (airlines for example). Loyalty may be tracked by points or other means.
Maintenance Asset
A maintenance asset is an item used by the facilities maintenance staff such as a light bulb, caulk, bolts, screws, brooms, carts, mops, etc. Some of these items are traceable/accountable and some are not.
Maintenance Task
A Maintenance Task is a unit of work performed by a Engineer at the hotel that is part of facilities operations of the Property. A Maintenance Task may be performed in response to a Work Order or requested by a Staff Member who may be acting as an agent for a Guest. A Maintenance Task may be defined by a Job Standard and may be routine, scheduled, or on-demand.
Marketing Campaign
A Marketing Campaign is an activity designed to promote and increase the awareness of the hotel and one or more of its services.
Marketing Channel
A Marketing Channel is any individual or company used in making the hotels products and/or services available to its customers.
Marketing Collateral
Marketing Collateral is the collection of media used to support the sales of a product or service. Wikipedia: ] The media typically describes the hotel and one or more of its services and may be targeted to a specific audience.
Night Audit
A Night Audit is a reconciliation of the previous 24 hours of transactions .
Part-Time Employee
A Part-Time employee is someone that is employed by the hotel company on a part-time basis and paid a salary or hourly wage and not eligible for benefits.
A Payable is a liability that the hotel must pay.
A Payment represents remuneration made by the Guest against a specific Folio. A payment can be in any form such as:
  • Credit-Card
  • Corporate-Account
  • Cash
  • Promotion
  • Loyalty Redemption
  • Purchase Order
  • Tour voucher
A Product is a tangible item that can be inventoried and can be offered to a Guest.
A property is a location owned or operated by the hotel management company.
Purchase Order
A Purchase Order is an agreement made by the hotel to spend a specific amount of money for a specific set of services with one of companies it does business with.
A Receivable is an amount of money that the hotel must collect. A receivable may be a Folio or an Invoice.
A Room is an inventoried physical space in the hotel that can be rented by a Guest. A Room is an atomic unit and can not be subdivided for inventory purposes.
Room Block
A Room Block is a group of rooms. Room Blocks may be created to organize rooms in various configurations to aid in planning and sales or other management tasks. Examples of Room Blocks might include: associating rooms with a single fixed price, a single guest, a channel, or a single team of Staff Members that manage or maintain the rooms in the block.
Room Type
A Room Type represents some form of categorization, set, or collection of rooms with some common element at the hotel that must be managed for marketing purposes within the hotel. For example, a Room-Type might be a suite or a single room with a double bed, poolside or ocean-side. A room may belong to multiple Room Types.
A Service is an intangible benefit that can be offered to a Guest.
Service Contract
A Service Contract is a legally binding exchange of services promised and agreements between the hotel and service provider that the law will enforce.
Examples of services are:
  • Telephone service
  • Cable TV and movie service
  • Temporary or other non-employee personnel
  • Alarm and control systems
Service Request
A Service Request is a request for guest services.
Staff Member
A Staff Member is someone that works at the hotel. A Staff Member can be either employed by the hotel or work for the hotel through a Contract.
Systems of Record
Work Order
A Work Order is a request maintenance work to be performed.
Work Queue
A Work Queue is a set of Tasks or Work Orders that must be performed by a specific set of Staff Members.

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Information Elements

Information Elements are basic descriptions of the different types of information required to support the needs identified in the Business and Application Architectures. In this reference architecture the goal is to provide an understanding of the types of information required and not the detailed information about how the elements or attributes within a type.

TBD: ADD TABLE 4-1 Information Elements

Architecture Mapping

The Architecture Mapping shows how the Information Elements map to the Business and Application Architectures. The left most columns references the Organizational Functions and Use Cases they carry out as defined in the Business Architecture. The Supporting Applications column identifies the applications that are used to support the Business Use Cases. The Data Needs column references the Information Elements needed by the application to support the Use Case. The CRUD column identifies the operations: Create, Retrieve, Update, and Delete, that the application must be able to perform on the information in support of the Use case.

TBD: ADD TABLE 5-1 Architecture Mapping

Food Services Functional Area

Food and Beverage Item
An item of food or beverage that can be purchased as an unit. This element might capture the description, common purchase quantities, and costs of the food items.
Menu Item
An item that appears on a menu of items that can be selected and are served by the business.
Menu Item Modifier
Anything that alters the how a food or beverage item is prepared for example; adding condiments (Ketchup and Mustard) or cooking style (rare, well-done) to a menu item.
A collection of menu items. A menu may be specific to a type of service offering for example a room service menu may be available that is distinct and different from a banquet service menu.
Instructions, including ingredients and quantities on how to prepare a menu item.
A component of a recipe.
Customer F&B Order
The collection of F&B items ordered for a customer, room, table, or event.
Customer F&B Order Item
An individual item on a Customer F&B Order
Customer Bill (or Check)
An invoice for the items ordered by the customer

Event Services Functional Area

Event Space
A space on the property that can be used to host an event
Event Space Configuration
A description for how an event space can be configured
Event Space Catalog
The collection of event spaces and may include each possible configuration for an event space
Event Space Inventory
A collection of event spaces, their locations, and their availability in specific configurations
Event Space Assignment
A relationship between a specific event space and an event to be hosted
Event Space Setup Instruction
Instructions on how a room should be setup and configured for a specific event
Event Space Take Down instructions
Instructions on how a space should arranged after an event when the space will be idle.

Resource Management Functional Area

Asset (Asset Inventory Item)
An asset is an item that is portable (can be moved from one place to the another) for use in a meeting or event
Electronic Asset
An electronic asset is a 'specialization' of an asset. It is piece of electronic equipment, like an amplifier, portable lights, or projector that might be used for a meeting or event space. This specialization might include additional information about it's electrical needs.
Asset Catalog
A description of each type of asset that may be available for use by an event or meeting
Asset Inventory
A collection of assets, their availability, and their storage locations
Asset Assignment
A relationship between an event and the asset to be used to support the event
Asset Setup Instructions
Instructions on how to setup a specific asset, for example how to setup a portable backdrop, or a projector with screen
Asset Take-down and Storage Instructions
Instructions on how to take-down a specific asset or electronic asset, for example how to take-down and store a portable backdrop, or a projector with screen.
Deployment Plan

The Deployment Plan gathers all of the information required to deploy, setup, configure, and install assets and other resources for an event. It also includes instructions for take down, removal, and storage or return of the assets. This plan includes:

  • identification of the resources responsible for each activity
  • descriptions of the delivery and setup locations
  • people or roles responsible for each activity
  • specific instructions for delivery including:
    • loading dock instructions,
    • specific instructions for setup
    • specific requests from the customer
    • reference to manufacturer installation documentation
  • specific instructions for take down and return including:
    • specific instructions for take down
    • loading dock instructions,
    • specific instructions for return
    • specific requests from the customer

Bell, Porter, and Coatroom Services

Check Item
An item to be stored for later retrieval. This may be a coat or wrap in the case of coatroom services or luggage in the case of Bell Services.
Storage Locker
Any room or location used to store Check Items. This may be a coatroom or other storage location. Often location within the locker have identifiers to make item retrieval easier.
Storage Location
An identifiable location possibly within a Storage Locker where Check Items may be stored and later retrieved.
Storage Tag
A tag that can be used to match the item to it's owner and storage location.


Valet Tag
A tag used to match the vehicle to it's owner, keys, and parking location.
Parking Tag
A tag provided to the customer that tracks the time a customer entered the parking facility and used for billing on exit purposes.
Parking Receipt
A receipt provided to the customer that shows parking has been paid or is authorized. In pre-pay parking situations this may be placed on display on the dashboard or displayed from the inside mirror.
Vehicle Information
Information about a vehicle (make, model, color, tag number, etc...) usually connected to customer or guest information.


A tip is an amount if money given to a service provider above what is owed as a thank you for good service.
Banquet Event Order (BEO)
Operation plan for specific event, including setup and breakdown operations. Describes the detailed plan for the fulfillment of a contract. Includes timing and music and other specific items. This is the output of Planning and the input to Operations.
A gathering of individuals who require the reserved use of spaces, assets or resources for a given period of time.
Event Contract
The agreement that descrbies what is to be provided for the event.
Event Check
The itemized and annotated list of goods and services delivered for an event. This is the basis for the posting for an invoice or a folio entry.

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